# Method Random

"Method Random" is a series of chromogenic prints generated by computational methods attempting to create randomness. Random number generators(RNG) are essential algorithms for a large number of applications, from encryption and security to simulation, jury selection, double-blind trials, statistical sampling, game theory and many others. While the sum of all colours picked by different RNG algorithms generates a neutral gray, a pattern can be discerned when a massive number of pixels can be seen simultaneously. These prints show how human perception of an organization can often spot the fundamental difficulty for computers to appear unpredictable.

The nine algorithms chosen are as follows:

1. Image generated with a seed of 5970917 using an LCG algorithm with a=22695477, c=1, and m=2^32. The same algorithm used by Borland C/C++, except with using the least significant 24bits.

2. Image generated with a seed of 5972092 using an XORSHIFT with an l,r,l shifting pattern and a=1, b=3, and c=11 (instead of 10), using the least significant 24bits

3. Image was generated with RANDU with a seed of 9830209, using the least significant 24bits. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RANDU)

4. Image was generated with RANDU with a seed of 271828, using the most significant 24bits. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RANDU)

5. Image was generated with a seed of 1967 using an LCG algorithm with a=833, c=3927 and m=2^32. Using bits [6..30]

6. Image was generated with a seed of 1985 using a quadratic equation of the form y = ax^2 + bx +c with a=124,b=909, c=751 and m=2^32. Using bits [6..30]

7. Image was generated with a seed of 8333927 using x_{i+1} = roundleft(frac{x_i}{sqrt{x_i}}

ight) +19671985. Using the least significant 24 bits

8. Image was generated with a seed of 7071067 using seed = (161803398*seed)+ seed. Using the least significant 24 bits

9. Image was generated with a seed of 14142135 using a quadratic equation of the form y = ax^2 - bx +c with a=132471, b=2584981, c=22958 and m=2^32. Using the most significant 24 bits.

The nine algorithms chosen are as follows:

1. Image generated with a seed of 5970917 using an LCG algorithm with a=22695477, c=1, and m=2^32. The same algorithm used by Borland C/C++, except with using the least significant 24bits.

2. Image generated with a seed of 5972092 using an XORSHIFT with an l,r,l shifting pattern and a=1, b=3, and c=11 (instead of 10), using the least significant 24bits

3. Image was generated with RANDU with a seed of 9830209, using the least significant 24bits. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RANDU)

4. Image was generated with RANDU with a seed of 271828, using the most significant 24bits. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RANDU)

5. Image was generated with a seed of 1967 using an LCG algorithm with a=833, c=3927 and m=2^32. Using bits [6..30]

6. Image was generated with a seed of 1985 using a quadratic equation of the form y = ax^2 + bx +c with a=124,b=909, c=751 and m=2^32. Using bits [6..30]

7. Image was generated with a seed of 8333927 using x_{i+1} = roundleft(frac{x_i}{sqrt{x_i}}

ight) +19671985. Using the least significant 24 bits

8. Image was generated with a seed of 7071067 using seed = (161803398*seed)+ seed. Using the least significant 24 bits

9. Image was generated with a seed of 14142135 using a quadratic equation of the form y = ax^2 - bx +c with a=132471, b=2584981, c=22958 and m=2^32. Using the most significant 24 bits.

## General info

**Spanish name:**

Método Aleatorio

**Year of creation:**

2014

## Version 1 - LCG

**Technique:**

chromogenic prints on Kodak Endura paper

**Dimensions:**

82 x 140 cm

**Additional info:**

Generated with a seed of 5970917 using an LCG algorithm with a=22695477, c=1, and m=2^32. The same algorithm used by Borland C/C++, except with using the least significant 24bits

**Edition:**

3 Editions, 1 AP

**Collectors:**

private collectors

## Version 2 - XORSHIFT

**Technique:**

chromogenic prints on Kodak Endura paper

**Dimensions:**

82 x 140 cm

**Additional info:**

Generated with a seed of 5972092 using an XORSHIFT with an l,r,l shifting pattern and a=1, b=3, and c=11 (instead of 10), using the least significant 24bits

**Edition:**

3 Editions, 1 AP

**Collectors:**

Thoma Foundation Art House Santa Fe and private collectors

## Version 3 - RANDU

**Technique:**

chromogenic prints on Kodak Endura paper

**Dimensions:**

82 x 140 cm

**Additional info:**

Generated with RANDU with a seed of 9830209, using the least significant 24bits

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RANDU

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RANDU

**Edition:**

3 Editions, 1 AP

**Collectors:**

private collectors

## Version 4 - RANDU

**Technique:**

chromogenic prints on Kodak Endura paper

**Dimensions:**

82 x 140 cm

**Additional info:**

Generated with RANDU with a seed of 271828, using the most significant 24bits. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RANDU

**Edition:**

3 Editions, 1 AP

**Collectors:**

Thoma Foundation Art House Santa Fe and private collector

## Version 5 - LCG

## Version 6 - Quadratic equation

## Version 7 - roundleft

**Technique:**

chromogenic prints on Kodak Endura paper

**Dimensions:**

82 x 140 cm

**Additional info:**

Generated with a seed of 8333927 using x_{i+1} = roundleft(frac{x_i}{sqrt{x_i}}ight) +19671985. Using the least significant 24 bits

**Edition:**

3 Editions, 1 AP

**Collectors:**

private collector

## Version 8 - Seed

## Version 9 - Quadratic

**Technique:**

chromogenic prints on Kodak Endura paper

**Dimensions:**

82 x 140 cm

**Additional info:**

Generated with a seed of 14142135 using a quadratic equation of the form y = ax^2 - bx +c with a=132471, b=2584981, c=22958 and m=2^32, using the most significant 24 bits

**Edition:**

3 Editions, 1 AP

**Collectors:**

private collector

## Complete series

## Exhibitions

- Electric Op, Musée d’arts de Nantes, Nantes, France, 2025.
- Electric Op, Buffalo AKG Art Museum, Buffalo, New York, United States, 2024 - 2025.
- Un ojo bien entrenado, Visual Arts Center, Austin, Texas, United States, 2023 - 2024.
- Drawn from a Score, Beall Center, Irvine, California, United States, 2017 - 2018.
- Rafael Lozano-Hemmer: Transition States, Gund Gallery, Gambier, Ohio, United States, 2016 - 2017.
- Rafael Lozano-Hemmer: Pseudomatismos, Museo Universitario Arte Contemporaneo, Mexico City, México, 2015 - 2016.
- Luminous Flux v2.0, Thoma Foundation - Art House, Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States, 2015 - 2016.
- Rafael Lozano-Hemmer: Polynomials, Art Bärtschi & Cie, Genève, Switzerland, 2015.
- Art Basel Miami Beach, Galería OMR, Miami, Florida, United States, 2014.
- Rafael Lozano-Hemmer: Polímeros, Galería Max Estrella, Madrid, Spain, 2014.
- ARCO '14, Galería Max Estrella, Carroll / Fletcher Gallery, Madrid, Spain, 2014.
- Zona MACO, Galería OMR, Galería Max Estrella, Mexico City, México, 2014.

## Credits

- Production: Jonah Badger, Julie Bourgeois

## Bibliography

- Abatemarco, Michael. "Algorithm and hues: Digital works at Art House." Pasatiempo, 31 July 2015. Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States, 2015. (english) (Magazines)
- Davis, Ben. "Light Touch." Artnet, 23 Oct. 2009. New York City, New York, United States, 2016. (english) (Websites)
- Mota, Melissa. "Entrevista. José Luis Barrios." GASTV, Nov. 2015. México, 2016. (español) (Websites)
- Patiño Arismendi, José. "Rafael Lozano-Hemmer: Pseudomatismos." Luster, May 2016. Caracas, Venezuela, 2016. (español) (Magazines)
- Peirano, Marta. "Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, el animista escéptico." El Diario, 13 May 2014. Madrid, Spain, 2014. (español) (Websites)

Photo Library (click to expand)